Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Student Research Committee, School of Public Health and Safety, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address: [Email]
Brucellosis is known as an influential zoonosis in different regions worldwide, with significant effects on the reproductive performance of livestock. Considering the high incidence of brucellosis in dairy products and further negative impacts on food safety, the present study was aimed to systematically investigate prevalence worldwide among published data regarding the identification of Brucella spp. in dairy products. In this regard, some databases, i.e., Scopus, PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science have been searched to retrieve all related articles regarding the incidence of Brucella contaminations in dairy products from 1 January 1983 to 1 April 2019. The prevalence of Brucella spp. in unpasteurized dairy products based on countries, WHO regions, and dairy product subgroups were evaluated and statistically compared. Based on the findings, the prevalence of Brucella spp. in dairy products increased while the GDP (C = 0.17, P-value < 0.001) and HDI (C = 0.19, P-value < 0.001) ranking decreased. Also, the highest prevalence of Brucella contamination in dairy products was noted in buffalo (25.91%) and goat (17.90%), respectively. The lowest and highest prevalence of Brucella spp. were observed in the Western Pacific (15.32%) and the Southeast Asia region (25.55%), respectively. Also, the rank order of WHO regions based on odds ratio (OR) was Southeast Asia region (2.84) > Eastern Mediterranean (2.41) > Region of America (1.65) > European Region (1.54) > Africa region (1.46) > Western Pacific (reference). The results of this study showed that decreasing poverty and an increase in the level of education in societies could reduce the prevalence of Brucella spp. in dairy products. The outcome of the current investigation can be used for the implementation of sustainable intervention and prevention strategies in affected regions.