Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) seroprevalence: A systematic review and meta-analysis.


Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Enqelab Square, Zip code 1346689151, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address: [Email]


Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is the most widespread, tick-borne viral disease affecting humans and therefore this paper performed a meta-analysis to highlight seroprevalence features of CCHF in a global context. After a preliminary review of the 396 papers representing areas throughout the world, 206 were selected for detailed meta-analysis. In general the total means of CCHF seroprevalence were, respectively 4.7 and 24.6% for humans and animals; and 17.1, 18.9, 24.3, 29.3 and 27.1% for camels, cattle, goats, sheep and livestock. Statistical analysis revealed a significant difference in seroprevalence between humans and camels (P = 0.043), cattle (P = 0.010), goats (P = 0.015), sheep (P = 0.005) and livestock (P = 0.017). Regionally, there also was a difference between humans, and goats (P = 0.0001), sheep (P = 0.007) and livestock (P = 0.002). Globally, CCHF seroprevalence in at-risk professionals was 7.5 fold greater than in normal humans, while CCHF seroprevalence was 5 fold greater in animals, camels, cattle, goats, sheep and livestock than normal humans. Animal contact, animal husbandry, farming, tick bite history and secretion exposure were the most frequently reported CCHF seropositivity risk factors. This study serves as an important resource for epidemiological discussions related to CCHF and CCHF seroprevalence features, providing specific information in understanding human and animal mean and trend CCHF seroprevalence for different regions of the world and on an aggregate global scale; seroprevalence in at-risk professionals; and total mean and trend CCHF seropositivity involving risk factors.


CCHF,CCHF seroprevalence,Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever,Epidemiological aspects of CCHF,Seroprevalence features,