Cryoembedder, automatic processor/stainer, liquid nitrogen freezing, and manual staining for frozen section examination: A comparative study.


Anatomic Pathology Unit, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center - IRCCS, Italy. Electronic address: [Email]


Frozen section examination (FSE) reshaped surgical pathology and is characterized by a high accuracy. Nonetheless pathologists can experience artefacts that can compromise or defer the diagnosis. We compared a commercial system, composed by a cryoembedder and a processor/stainer, to our FSE protocol. Feasibility of diagnosis as well as overall architecture, cytology, and staining, were scored under the following conditions: Traditional (liquid nitrogen freezing and manual staining), Only-Presto (liquid nitrogen freezing and commercial processor/stainer), Only-PrestoCHILL (cryoembedder and manual staining), and PrestoSystem (cryoembedder and processor/stainer). Scores were compared across the different experimental conditions. PrestoSystem had significantly higher scores than Traditional, Only-Presto or Only-PrestoCHILL in all categories (Wilcoxon test; all P-value <.001); similarly, also Only-Presto and Only-PrestoChill had significantly higher scores than Traditional in all categories. Only-PrestoCHILL had significantly higher scores than Only-Presto in Cytology and Architecture. In conclusion the control of pre-analytical variables provided reproducible results, of a higher quality.


Automation,Clinical decision-making,Diagnostic techniques,Frozen sections,Surgical,