Current concepts regarding drug dosing for peripheral stents.


Cardiovascular Research Foundation, Skirball Center for Innovation, Orangeburg, NY, USA - [Email]


Drug-eluting stent (DES) are the mainstay therapy for the treatment of coronary artery disease. Stent design and drug-elution strategies have evolved over the years leading to the last generation DES which shows optimal safety and efficacy outcome. Peripheral arteries have different mechanical and biological features and the lessons learned from the coronary field have been difficult to introduce into the development of peripheral vascular technologies. First, due to its complex biomechanical behavior the use of metallic stents is limited in some vascular segments (i.e., distal superficial fermoral artery [SFA]). Also, peripheral vascular atherosclerosis is different containing higher levels of plaque burden and calcium. Finally, peripheral arterial disease tends to be more aggressive including longer lesions and higher incidence of total chronic occlusion. In general terms, restenosis in the peripheral vascular territory is more aggressive and occurs at a later time (~12 months) requiring a different pharmacokinetic profile compared to coronary technologies. Several strategies have been evaluated in the peripheral arteries raging from the bare metal stent to the drug coated balloon and drug eluting stent with outcome varying depending on the different field of application (i.e. SFA and below-the-knee). Results coming from the clinical trial are encouraging but further studies and direct comparison among the different technologies are demanded to determine the best therapy for peripheral vascular disease.