Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator-associated ligand protects dopaminergic neurons by differentially regulating metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 in the progression of neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine-induced Parkinson's disease model.

Affiliation

Wang Y(1), Gu L(1), Yang HM(1), Zhang H(2).
Author information:
(1)Department of Neurobiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Beijing Key Laboratory of Neural Regeneration and Repair, Beijing Institute for Brain Disorders, Capital Medical University, No. 10 Xitoutiao, You An Men, Beijing, 100069, China.
(2)Department of Neurobiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Beijing Key Laboratory of Neural Regeneration and Repair, Beijing Institute for Brain Disorders, Capital Medical University, No. 10 Xitoutiao, You An Men, Beijing, 100069, China. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

Due to limitations in early diagnosis and treatments of Parkinson's disease (PD), it is necessary to explore the neuropathological changes that occur early in PD progression and to design neuroprotective therapies to prevent or delay the ongoing degeneration process. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5) has shown both diagnostic and therapeutic potential in preclinical studies on PD. Clinical trials using mGlu5 negative allosteric modulators to treat PD have, however, raised limitations about the neuroprotective role of mGlu5. It is likely that mGlu5 has different regulatory roles in different stages of PD. Here, we investigated a protective role of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator-associated ligand (CAL) in the progression of PD by differential regulation of mGlu5 expression and activity to protect against 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced neurotoxicity. Following treatment with 6-OHDA, mGlu5 and CAL expressions were elevated in the early stage and reduced in the late stage, both in vitro and in vivo. Activation of mGlu5 in the early stage by (RS)-2-chloro-5-hydroxyphenylglycine, or blocking mGlu5 in the late stage by 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl) pyridine, increased cell survival and inhibited apoptosis, but these effects were significantly weakened by knockdown of CAL. CAL alleviated 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity by regulating mGlu5-mediated signaling pathways, thereby maintaining the physiological function of mGlu5 in different disease stages. In PD rat model, CAL deficiency aggravated 6-OHDA toxicity on dopaminergic neurons and increased motor dysfunction because of lack of regulation of mGlu5 activity. These data reveal a potential mechanism by which CAL specifically regulates the opposite activity of mGlu5 in progression of PD to protect against neurotoxicity, suggesting that CAL is a favorable endogenous target for the treatment of PD.