BACKGROUND : Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) was recently found in the enteric nervous system, where its role is unclear. We aimed to identify which enteric neuronal structures express CFTR, whether CFTR modulates enteric neurotransmission and if altered CFTR expression is associated with slow transit constipation (STC). METHODS : Immunofluorescence double labeling was performed to localize CFTR with various neuronal and glial cell markers in the human colon. The immunoreactivity (IR) of CFTR and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) on myenteric plexus of control and STC colon was quantitatively analyzed. In control colonic muscle strips, electrical field stimulation (EFS) evoked contractile responses and the release of acetylcholine (ACh) was measured in the presence of the CFTR channel inhibitor, CFTR(inh)-172. RESULTS : CFTR-IR was densely localized to myenteric ganglia, where it was co-localized with neuronal markers HuC/D and β-tubulin, and glial marker S-100 but little with glial fibrillary acidic protein. Vesicular ACh transport was almost exclusively co-localized with CFTR, but neurons expressing nitric oxide synthase were CFTR negative. Significant reductions of CFTR-IR (P < 0.01) and ChAT-IR (P < 0.05) were observed on myenteric ganglia of STC compared to control. Pre-treatment of colonic muscle strips with CFTR(inh)-172 (10 µM) significantly inhibited EFS-evoked contractile responses (P < 0.01) and ACh release (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS : Co-localization of CFTR-IR with cholinergic markers, inhibition of EFS-induced colonic muscle contractility and ACh release by CFTR(inh)-172 suggest that CFTR modulates enteric cholinergic neurotransmission. The downregulation of CFTR and ChAT in myenteric ganglia of STC correlated with the impaired contractile responses to EFS.