In plants, pollen grain transfers the haploid male genetic material from anther to stigma, both between flowers (cross-pollination) and within the same flower (self-pollination). In order to better understand chemical hybridizing agent (CHA) SQ-1-induced pollen abortion in wheat, comparative cytological and proteomic analyses were conducted. Results indicated that pollen grains underwent serious structural injury, including cell division abnormality, nutritional deficiencies, pollen wall defect and pollen grain malformations in the CHA-SQ-1-treated plants, resulting in pollen abortion and male sterility. A total of 61 proteins showed statistically significant differences in abundance, among which 18 proteins were highly abundant and 43 proteins were less abundant in CHA-SQ-1 treated plants. 60 proteins were successfully identified using MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. These proteins were found to be involved in pollen maturation and showed a change in the abundance of a battery of proteins involved in multiple biological processes, including pollen development, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, stress response, protein metabolism. Interactions between these proteins were predicted using bioinformatics analysis. Gene ontology and pathway analyses revealed that the majority of the identified proteins were involved in carbohydrate and energy metabolism. Accordingly, a protein-protein interaction network involving in pollen abortion was proposed. These results provide information for the molecular events underlying CHA-SQ-1-induced pollen abortion and may serve as an additional guide for practical hybrid breeding.