Cytomegalovirus Infection Incidence and Risk Factors Across Diverse Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Platforms Using a Standardized Monitoring and Treatment Approach: A Comprehensive Evaluation from a Single Institution.


National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland. Electronic address: [Email]


Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and disease remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality for hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) recipients. Disruption of or weak reconstitution of virus-specific cellular immune function, such as with certain HCT approaches, poses significant risk for CMV-related complications. The incidence of and risk factors for CMV infection and the nature of CMV disease were evaluated retrospectively among 356 consecutive HCT recipients transplanted at the National Institutes of Health using all graft sources, including bone marrow, peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC), and umbilical cord blood (UCB), and a range of in vivo and ex vivo approaches for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. The cumulative incidence of CMV infection was higher for CMV-seropositive recipients at 33%, regardless of donor CMV serostatus. Patients transplanted with CMV-seropositive donors had a significantly shorter duration of antiviral therapy. Among graft sources UCB was associated with the highest cumulative incidence of CMV infection at 65% and significantly longer treatment duration at a median of 36days, whereas PBSC HCT was associated with the lowest incidence at 26% and the shortest CMV treatment duration at a median of 21days. There were significant differences in the cumulative incidence of CMV infection by T cell manipulation strategy when systemic steroids were included as a risk-modifying event. Over one-third of CMV infections occurred in the setting of systemic steroid administration. CMV disease occurred in 5% of HCT recipients, with 70% of cases in the setting of treatment for GVHD. Although factors related to serostatus, graft source, and GVHD prophylaxis were associated with varied CMV infection incidence, unplanned post-HCT corticosteroid therapy contributed greatly to the incidence of both CMV infection and disease across HCT approaches, highlighting this post-HCT intervention as a key time to potentially tailor the approach to monitoring, preemptive therapy, and even prophylaxis.


Cytomegalovirus,Hematopoietic cell transplantation,Steroids,