Cytotoxicity of Ag, Au and Ag-Au bimetallic nanoparticles prepared using golden rod (Solidago canadensis) plant extract.

Affiliation

Water Research Group, Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, Potchefstroom Campus, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom, 2520, South Africa. [Email]

Abstract

Production and use of metallic nanoparticles have increased dramatically over the past few years and design of nanomaterials has been developed to minimize their toxic potencies. Traditional chemical methods of production are potentially harmful to the environment and greener methods for synthesis are being developed in order to address this. Thus far phytosynthesis have been found to yield nanomaterials of lesser toxicities, compared to materials synthesized by use of chemical methods. In this study nanoparticles were synthesized from an extract of leaves of golden rod (Solidago canadensis). Silver (Ag), gold (Au) and Ag-Au bimetallic nanoparticles (BNPs), synthesized by use of this "green" method, were evaluated for cytotoxic potency. Cytotoxicity of nanomaterials to H4IIE-luc (rat hepatoma) cells and HuTu-80 (human intestinal) cells were determined by use of the xCELLigence real time cell analyzer. Greatest concentrations (50 µg/mL) of Ag and Ag-Au bimetallic were toxic to both H4IIE-luc and HuTu-80 cells but Au nanoparticles were not toxic. BNPs exhibited the greatest toxic potency to these two types of cells and since AuNPs caused no toxicity; the Au functional portion of the bimetallic material could be assisting in uptake of particles across the cell membrane thereby increasing the toxicity.

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