Equol is a metabolite of isoflavone daidzein and has an affinity to estrogen receptors. Although equol is produced by intestinal bacteria, the association between the status of equol production and the gut microbiota has not been fully investigated. The aim of this study was to compare the intestinal bacteria responsible for equol production in gut microbiota between equol producer and non-producer subjects regarding the intake of daidzein. A total of 1044 adult subjects who participated in a health survey in Hirosaki city were examined. The concentration of equol in urine was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The relative abundances of 8 bacterial species responsible for equol production in the gut microbiota was assessed using 16S rRNA amplification. There were 458 subjects identified as equol producers. The proportion of equol production status and the intake of daidzein increased with age. Daily intake of daidzein was larger in equol-producer. The intestinal bacteria, which convert daidzein to equol were present in both equol producers and non-producers. However, the relative abundance and the prevalence of Asaccharobactercelatus and Slackiaisoflavoniconvertens were significantly higher in equol producers than those in equol non-producers. The intestinal bacteria that convert daidzein to equol are present in not only the equol producers but also in the non-producers. The daidzein intake is associated with the equol production status through an increase of A.celatus and S.isoflavoniconvertens in the gut microbiota.