The biomedical scientific community is in the midst of a significant expansion in how data are used to accomplish the important goals of reducing disability and improving health care. Data science is the academic discipline emerging from this expansion. Data science reflects a new approach to the acquisition, storage, analysis, and interpretation of scientific knowledge. The potential benefits of data science are transforming biomedical research and will lead physical medicine and rehabilitation in exciting new directions. Understanding this transformation will require modifying and expanding the education, training, and research infrastructure that support rehabilitation science and practice.