Deep eutectic solvents (DES) mediated extraction of pectin from Averrhoa bilimbi: Optimization and characterization studies.


Analytical Biochemistry Research Centre (ABrC), Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang, Malaysia. Electronic address: [Email]


The Box-Behnken design was applied to optimize the extraction of pectin from Averrhoa bilimbi (ABP) using deep eutectic solvents (DES). The four variables of extraction were percentage of DES (X1), extraction time (X2), temperature (X3), and molar ratio of DES components (X4). The quadratic regression equation was established as a predicted model with R2 value of 0.9375. The optimal condition was X1 = 3.74% (w/v), X2 = 2.5 h, X3 = 80 °C, and X4 = 1:1. No significant difference between the predicted (14.70%) and experimental (14.44%) maximum yield of sample was noted. Characterization of physico-chemical properties characterization of ABP was performed. The main components of ABP were galacturonic acids, arabinoses, and xyloses. ABP also showed good functional properties such as water holding capacity (3.70 g/g), oil holding capacity (2.40 g/g), and foaming capacity (133.33%). The results also showed that ABP exhibited free radical scavenging activity (41.46%) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (1.15 mM).


Averrhoa bilimbi,Deep eutectic solvent,Pectin,Polysaccharide,

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