As deformable image registration makes its way into the clinical routine, the summation of doses from fractionated treatment regimens to evaluate cumulative doses to targets and healthy tissues is also becoming a frequently utilized tool in the context of image-guided adaptive radiotherapy. Accounting for daily geometric changes using deformable image registration and dose accumulation potentially enables a better understanding of dose-volume-effect relationships, with the goal of translation of this knowledge to personalization of treatment, to further enhance treatment outcomes. Treatment adaptation involving image deformation requires patient-specific quality assurance of the image registration and dose accumulation processes, to ensure that uncertainties in the 3D dose distributions are identified and appreciated from a clinical relevance perspective. While much research has been devoted to identifying and managing the uncertainties associated with deformable image registration and dose accumulation approaches, there are still many unanswered questions. Here, we provide a review of current deformable image registration and dose accumulation techniques, and related clinical application. We also discuss salient issues that need to be deliberated when applying deformable algorithms for dose mapping and accumulation in the context of adaptive radiotherapy and response assessment.