This paper designed and manufactured photosensitive resin-based 2-D lattice structures with different types of variable cross-section cores by stereolithography 3D printing technology (SLA 3DP). An analytical model was employed to predict the structural compressive response and failure types. A theoretical calculation was performed to obtain the most efficient material utilization of the 2-D lattice core. A flatwise compressive experiment was performed to verify the theoretical conclusions. A comparison of theoretical and experimental results showed good agreement for structural compressive response. Results from the analytical model and experiments showed that when the 2-D lattice core was designed so that R/r = 1.167 (R and r represent the core radius at the ends and in the middle), the material utilization of the 2-D lattice core improved by 13.227%, 19.068%, and 22.143% when n = 1, n = 2, and n = 3 (n represents the highest power of the core cross-section function).