In this study we developed an optical fiber biosensor able to detect the presence of naphthalene in sea-water. With this aim, we designed and produced an antibody specific for the naphthalene molecule. The capability of the antibody to bind to naphthalene was characterized by ELISA tests. A surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor platform was realized by sputtering a gold layer on a modified plastic optical fiber (POF). The gold surface was derivatizated and functionalized with the produced antibody by using the EDC/NHS amino-coupling immobilization protocol. The obtained results indicated that the POF-biosensor is able to sense the presence of naphthalene in a sea-water solution. The limit of detection (LOD) value was calculated to be 0.76 ng/mL, a value lower than the maximum residue limit value of naphthalene (0.13 µg/mL) referred as the water environmental quality standards (EQS). In addition, to the high sensitivity of the assay, it is remarkable to point out the possibility to monitor the presence of naphthalene in a real sea water solution by exploiting a simple experimental setup with a remote sensing capability offered by the POF-biosensor.