Detection of reaching intention using EEG signals and nonlinear dynamic system identification.


Electrical Engineering Department, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran. Electronic address: [Email]


OBJECTIVE : Low frequency electroencephalography (EEG) signals are associated with preparation of movement and thus provide valuable information for brain-machine interface applications. The purpose of this study was to detect movement intention from EEG signals before execution of self-paced arm reaching movements.
METHODS : Ten healthy individuals were recruited. Movement onset was determined from surface electromyography recordings time-locked with EEG signals. Unlike previous studies, which employed feature extraction and classification for decoding, a nonlinear dynamic multiple-input/single output (MISO) model was developed. The MISO model consisted of a cascade of Volterra structures and a threshold block, generating the binary output corresponding to intention/no-intention. The modeling process included input selection from a pool of different EEG channels. The predictive performance of the model was evaluated using the receiver operating characteristics curve, from which the optimum threshold was also selected. The Mann-Whitney statistics was employed to select the significant EEG channels for the output by examining the statistical significance of improvement in the predictive capability of the model when the respective channels were included.
RESULTS : With the proposed approach, movement intention was detected approximately 500 ms before the movement onset and on average, with an accuracy of 96.37 ± 0.94%, a sensitivity of 77.93 ± 4.40% and a specificity of 98.52 ± 1.19%.
CONCLUSIONS : The model output can be converted to motion commands for neuroprosthetic devices and exoskeletons in future applications.


Laguerre expansion technique,Low frequency EEG,Movement related cortical potentials,Nonlinear dynamic modeling,Volterra kernels,