Center for Membrane and Film Technology, Department of Chemical Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 657-8501, Japan. Electronic address: [Email]
The water-solubility of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is extremely low because of its hydrophobicity, which results in low bioavailability. In this study, peptide mixtures derived from different proteins (casein, albumin, gelatin, lysozyme, zein and hemoglobin) were prepared and used as dispersants ofCoQ10. Most peptide mixtures, except for that derived from lysozyme, enhanced the water-dispersibility of CoQ10 by forming complexes with CoQ10. In particular, the apparent solubility of CoQ10complexed with the casein hydrolysate (Pepcas) was the highest. Pepcas was fractionated by ammonium sulfate precipitation and ultrafiltration to find the most effective peptides for enhancing water-dispersibility of CoQ10. The peptide fraction that had a relatively hydrophobic nature and peptides of higher-than-average molecular weights (PepcasA) was found to be the most effective. Results from differential thermal analysis and powder X-ray diffraction revealed that the complex between CoQ10 and PepcasA in the solid state was amorphous. In solution, the complex is a hydrocolloid with particle sizes of 154-279 nm.