Privileged structures are widely used in the process of drug design, and provide an effective template in medicinal chemistry. Diarylheptanoids are a class of structurally distinctive compounds with a wide variety of bioactivity, raising keenly interest in the past decades. Turmeric is a golden spice from the rhizome of the plant Curcuma longa, used for food preparations and giving color since ancient times. Curcumin, obtained from turmeric, has showed widely biological abilities with low toxicity in recent studied. Thus, a spice originally common in the kitchen has recently broadened its application to the clinic. This review aims to highlight diarylheptanoid as a privileged scaffold in drug discovery. In this review, we summarized diverse biological and pharmacological effects of diarylheptanoids and explored the therapeutic application and development of diet based on their structure.