Sleep deprivation (SD) is a common feature in modern society. Prolonged sleep deprivation causes cognition deficits and depression-like behavior in the model of animal experiments. Endocannabinoid system are key modulators of synaptic function, which were related to memory and mood. Although the underlying mechanism remains unknown, several studies indicated the benefits of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, linolenic acid, 39.7 %; linoleic acid, 28 %; and oleic acid, 22 %) on brain function through the endocannabinoid system. The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of dietary PUFAs on cognition deficits induced by sleep deprivation in Sprague Dawley rats. The rats were sleep deprivation continuously for 7 days and fed with PUFAs at three different dosages (2, 4 and 8 μl/g body weight) at the meantime. The effect of PUFAs on cognition was investigated by object recognition test while depressive-like behavior were detected using sucrose preference test and forced swim test. The mechanism of PUFAs was elucidated by hippocampal synaptic transmission analyses. The resluts revealed that SD led to the disorder of cognition and mood which was improved by the supplement of PUFAs. SD significantly increased the mEPSC frequency, and decreased the protein level of cannabinoid type-1 receptors (CB1R). These changes were restored by supplement of PUFAs, which showed a similar level to the control group. Behaviour tests showed that the positive effects on repairing cognition and anxiety disorders were almost completely abolished when the CB1R receptor antagonist rimonabant was applied to the SD rats. These findings indicated that PUFAs are a factor regulating cognition deficits and depression induced by SD via cannabinoid type-1 receptors.