BACKGROUND : Although the Melanocortin-4 Receptor (MC4R) gene rs17782313 C/T has been consistently related to obesity risk, the interaction between MC4R polymorphism and diet quality indices on cardio-metabolic risk factors has not yet investigated. Therefore we aimed to test this hypothesis. METHODS : This cross-sectional study recruited 188 (96 males and 92 females) healthy obese adults aged 20-50 years. Diet quality indices including Healthy Eating Index-2015 (HEI-2015) and Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I) were constructed using data from a validated food frequency questionnaire. MC4R s17782313 were genotyped by Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The interaction between MC4R polymorphism and diet quality indices was tested by Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) multivariate interaction model. RESULTS : There were significant gene-diet interactions between rs17782313 and HEI-2015 (P Interaction < 0.05) in modulating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels among female group; rare allele heterozygotes of rs17782313 had highest mean of LDL-C concentration when placed in second tertile of HEI (P < 0.05). Moreover, rs17782313 and both indices (HEI and DQI-I) had significant interaction on serum glucose concentrations, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP) in males (P Interaction < 0.05); when adherence to these indices was low, the obesity risk allele was associated with serum glucose concentrations, SBP and DBP. These gene-diet interactions remained significant even after adjustment for potential confounders. CONCLUSIONS : Our study showed that MC4R rs17782313 interacts with adherence to the dietary quality indices (HEI and DQI-I) to influence several cardio-metabolic risk factors in obese male and females. Further large prospective studies are warranted to confirm our findings.