Gut microbiota contributes to the biological activities of berry anthocyanins by transforming them into bioactive metabolites, and anthocyanins support the growth of specific bacteria, indicating a two-way relationship between anthocyanins and microbiota. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that strawberry supplementation alters gut microbial ecology in diabetic db/db mice. Control (db/+) and diabetic (db/db) mice (7 weeks old) consumed standard diet or diet supplemented with 2.35% freeze-dried strawberry (db/db + SB) for 10 weeks. Colon contents were used to isolate bacterial DNA. V4 variable region of 16S rRNA gene was amplified. Data analyses were performed using standardized pipelines (QIIME 1.9 and R packages). Differences in predictive metagenomics function were identified by PICRUSt. Principal coordinate analyses confirmed that the microbial composition was significantly influenced by both host genotype and strawberry consumption. Further, α-diversity indices and β-diversity were different at the phylum and genus levels, and genus and operational taxonomical units levels, respectively (P<.05). At the phylum level, strawberry supplementation decreased the abundance of Verrucomicrobia in db/db + SB vs. db/db mice (P<.05). At the genus level, db/db mice exhibited a decrease in the abundance of Bifidobacterium, and strawberry supplementation increased Bifidobacterium in db/db + SB vs. db/db mice (P<.05). PICRUSt revealed significant differences in 45 predicted metabolic functions among the 3 groups. Our study provides evidence for marked changes in the composition and functional potential of the gut microbiome with strawberry supplementation in diabetic mice. Importantly, strawberry supplementation increased the abundance of beneficial bacteria Bifidobacterium which play a pivotal role in the metabolism of anthocyanins.