Differential evolution of antigenic regions of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus 1 before and after vaccine introduction.


College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: [Email]


Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a widespread viral pathogen that has caused tremendous economic losses throughout most pig-producing countries. Nowadays, both PRRSV-1 and PRRSV-2 co-circulate in Korean pig populations, and commercial modified live vaccine (MLV) is predominantly used to control PRRS. Specifically, control strategy using only PRRSV-2 MLV that was used since 1995 cannot prevent the spread of PRRSV-1 and damage from its infection, which led to the first introduction of two additional PRRSV-1 vaccines in 2014. Despite the wide implementation with PRRSV-1 vaccines, there is a lack of knowledge about the currently circulating Korean PRRSV-1 strains. Whole structural genes of PRRSV-1 before (11) and after (17) the introduction of vaccine were compared to determine the genetic evolutionary features of PRRSV. Genetic and phylogenetic analysis indicated that Korean PRRSV-1 shared 91.5 ± 1.7% nucleotide identity but formed a unique clade based on ORF2-7 phylogeny. Bioinformatics showed increased genetic heterogeneity, enhanced diversifying selection, and the emergence of novel glycosylation sites within neutralizing epitopes of minor structural proteins after vaccine introduction. Taken together, our data provide novel insight into the evolution of minor structural proteins of PRRSV-1 in the vaccination era.


Glycosylation,PRRSV-1,Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus,Selection pressure,Structural protein,Vaccine,