The production of fuels and chemicals from renewable plant biomass has been proposed as a feasible strategy for global sustainable development. However, the economic efficiency of biorefineries is low. Here, through metabolic engineering, Myceliophthora thermophila, a cellulolytic thermophilic fungus, was constructed into a platform that can efficiently convert lignocellulose into important bulk chemicals-four carbon 1, 4-diacids (malic and succinic acid), building blocks for biopolymers-without the need for extra hydrolytic enzymes. Titers of >200 g/L from crystalline cellulose and 110 g/L from plant biomass (corncob) were achieved during fed-batch fermentation. Our study represents a milestone in consolidated bioprocessing technology and offers a new and promising system for the cost-effective production of chemicals and fuels from biomass.