Disparities between sonoluminescence, sonochemiluminescence and dosimetry with frequency variation under flow.

Affiliation

Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH, United Kingdom. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

The effects of ultrasound (frequency and pressure amplitude) and external parameters (fluid flow rate and surface stabilisation) on active sonoluminescence (SL) and sonochemical (SC) bubbles were investigated using common characterisation techniques. The SL from water, sonochemiluminescence (SCL) from luminol solutions and iodide dosimetry were studied at flow rates of 0, 24, 228 and 626 mL/min at 44, 300 and 1000 kHz with and without surface stabilisation. An increase in flow, in general, decreased SL, SCL and dosimetry caused by a reduction in collapse intensity. However, all flow rates were also able to increase SL intensity and the highest flow rate (626 mL/min) could also increase SCL and dosimetry. For SL, augmentation with flow was attributed to a reduction in coalescence bubbles which cause growth to inactive size (44 kHz) and enhancement of the standing wave at the surface of solution (300 and 1000 kHz). Where agitation at the solution surface (44 kHz) caused aeration (without stabilisation), flow may have circulated additional cavitation nuclei, increasing SL. Increases in SCL intensity and dosimetry yields were attributed to increased bubble fragmentation which was more influential for the latter process. Disparities between SCL and dosimetry are discussed in terms of gas concentration and reaction energy requirements influenced by the transient nature of the bubbles. SL and SCL had complimentary behaviour when they were located in the same regions i.e. a reduction in SL resulted in an increase in SCL as bubbles moved from stable to transient in nature. The same was not observed when SL and SCL bubbles were located in different regions. The active region for SL/SCL could differ or overlap, depending on the standing to travelling wave proportions at each frequency effecting active regions. In some cases, increased standing wave proportions throughout the reactor (with surface stabilisation) did not facilitate an increase in SL intensity, as was expected. Here, the travelling wave without stabilisation enabled a stronger area of activity toward the surface with a localised standing wave.

Keywords

Fluid flow,Iodide dosimetry,Sonochemiluminescence,Sonoluminescence,Standing/Travelling waves,Surface stabilisation,

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