Dissection and characterization of the prokaryotic community during the long-term operation of a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor for the anaerobic treatment of N, N-dimethylformamide-containing wastewater with a co-cultured inoculum.
A submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAnMBR) was operated for the anaerobic treatment of wastewater containing approximately 2000 mg L-1N, N-dimethylformamide (DMF). Inoculated with a co-cultured inoculum, the SAnMBR obtained an excellent DMF removal under a low organic loading rate (OLR) of 3.14-4.16 g COD L-1 d-1. However, the elevation of OLR limited hydrolysis. While the co-cultured inoculum initially contains abundant DMF-hydrolyzing bacteria with potential to hydrolyze DMF into intermediates, such as Paracoccus, Hyphomicrobium, Burkholderia, Catellibacterium, Bacillus and Bradyrhizobium, since these bacteria are facultative anaerobes which survive anaerobically, they kept decaying rather than proliferating, resulting in the weakening of the DMF-hydrolyzing ability. Each re-inoculation of new sludge only temporarily revitalized hydrolysis activity for a short period. Due to the lack of nitrate, these bacteria were unable to proliferate. This suggests that a small dose of nitrate would help to enrich these bacteria and establish a stable DMF-degrading consortium.