Dissociating wanting and anticipated liking from consummatory liking in smokers with different levels of nicotine dependence.

Affiliation

Leeds School of Social Sciences, Leeds Beckett University, Calverley Street, Leeds, UK. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

BACKGROUND : Incentive Sensitisation theory suggests wanting and liking are dissociable concepts, with wanting, but not liking typically increasing with repeated drug use. Wanting is associated with anticipation of reward, whereas liking relates to pleasure derived from consummatory behaviour. However, numerous studies have conceptualised liking as an anticipatory cognition. This study explores whether levels of nicotine dependence differentially effect wanting and liking responses to smoking-related cues, and whether anticipated and consummatory liking are equivalent, and dissociable from wanting.
METHODS : Heavy (HS, mean = 16 cigarettes/day) and light non-daily (LS, mean = 2 cigarettes/day) smokers completed wanting and anticipated liking questionnaires pre-, immediately post-exposure to smoking-related and neutral cues and at session-end. Consummatory liking was measured post-session, immediately after smoking.
RESULTS : Wanting and anticipated liking responses were comparable. Smoking-related cues increased wanting and anticipated liking compared to neutral cues. This effect was maintained until session-end. No baseline differences were seen between HS and LS on wanting or anticipated liking, however after cue exposure, and at session-end, HS reported greater drug wanting and anticipated liking than LS. Conversely, HS and LS did not differ on consummatory liking. Analyses confirmed the relationship between wanting and anticipated liking was significantly stronger than wanting and consummatory liking or anticipated and consummatory liking.
CONCLUSIONS : Wanting and anticipated liking appear to be overlapping constructs assessing expectations of reward, that are dissociable from consummatory liking. Furthermore, heavier smoking increases drug wanting, but not smoking pleasure. Future attempts to dissociate these concepts should ensure liking is measured during/immediately after consumption.

Keywords

Addiction,Craving,Incentive salience,Liking,Smoking,Wanting,

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