Sialidases are enzymes essential for numerous organisms including humans. Hydrolytic sialidases (EC 126.96.36.199), trans-sialidases and anhydrosialidases (intramolecular trans-sialidases, EC 188.8.131.52) are glycoside hydrolase enzymes that cleave the glycosidic linkage and release sialic acid residues from sialyl substrates. The paper summarizes diverse sialidases present in the human body and their potential impact on development of antiviral compounds - inhibitors of viral neuraminidases. It includes a brief overview of catalytic mechanisms of action of sialidases and describes the origin of sialidases in the human body. This is followed by description of the structure and function of sialidase families with a special focus on the GH33 and GH34 families. Various effects of sialidases on human body are also briefly described. Modulation of sialidase activity may be considered a useful tool for effective treatment of various diseases. In some cases, it is desired to completely suppress the activity of sialidases by suitable inhibitors. Specific sialidase inhibitors are useful for the treatment of influenza, epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, diabetes, different types of cancer, or heart defects. Challenges and future directions are shortly depicted in the final part of the paper.