Dose-related impacts of imidacloprid oral intoxication on brain and liver of rock pigeon (Columba livia domestica), residues analysis in different organs.


Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, El-Sharkia Province, Egypt. Electronic address: [Email]


Available data regarding Imidacloprid (IMI) insecticide hazards to birds are still being scare. Our study aimed to investigate toxic impacts of IMI oral gavage by different dose levels on the brain and liver of Rock pigeon (Columba livia domestica). Forty mature male birds were divided equally into four groups. A control group (C) was orally dosed Mazola corn oil and other three groups; the low dose (LD), the medium dose (MD), and the high dose (HD) groups were orally dosed IMI in Mazola corn oil by three dose levels corresponding to 1/15th, 1/10th, 1/5th IMI oral LD50 respectively. IMI exposure induced a significant decrease in serum levels of glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme activity. On the other hand; malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were elevated. The levels of serum total protein, albumin, globulin, and A/G ratio showed a non-significant changes in all IMI dosed groups except levels of total protein in the HD IMI dosed group showed a significant decrease compared to the C group. Serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), uric acid, plasma tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and plasma acetylcholinesterase (AChEs) enzyme activities showed a significant dose related increase in all IMI exposed groups compared to the C group; except the levels of ALT, LDH, and uric acid showed a non significant decrease in the LD IMI dosed group only. Residues of IMI were detected in the pectoral muscles, liver, brain, and kidney of all dosed rock pigeon. Moreover; pectoral muscles were the highest tissue for IMI residues detection. This is the first study reports accumulation of IMI in tissues other than crop, liver, and kidney of rock pigeon including brain and muscles. Moreover, the examined brain and liver tissues of all IMI dosed groups showed dosed related alterations in their structural and ultra-structural morphology. It is concluded that IMI oral administration to pigeon induced oxidative stress and detrimental effects in brain and liver of exposed pigeons. Additionally; IMI bio-accumulated in different organs being muscles is the highest tissues for IMI residues, thus monitoring of IMI residues in food is very essential.


Brain and liver,Columba livia domestica,Electron microscopy,HPLC Residues Analysis,Imidacloprid,Rock pigeon,