Dual amplification in a fluorometric acetamiprid assay by using an aptamer, G-quadruplex/hemin DNAzyme, and graphene quantum dots functionalized with D-penicillamine and histidine.


School of Chemical and Material Engineering, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, 214122, China. [Email]


D-penicillamine and histidine-functionalized graphene quantum dot (DPA-GQD-His) was synthesized and applied in a fluorometric method for determination of acetamiprid using a G-quadruplex DNAzyme. At first DNA probe (probe 1) consists of a target-specific aptamer with two arms of DNA segments. Probe 1 was hybridized with DNA probe 2 composed of a single DNA sequence with two split G-rich DNA sequences. This leads to the formation of a triplex-to-G-quadruplex (TPGQ). Next, acetamiprid was hybridized with the aptamer in the TPGQ to release free DNA probe 2. The released probe 2, in the presence of of K+, undergoes a structural change into a stem-loop structure (by self-complementary hybridization and Hoogsteen hydrogen bonding) that bears a G-quadruplex structure. This is followed by conjugation with hemin to form the G-quadruplex/hemin DNAzyme. The DNAzyme catalyzes the oxidation of o-phenylenediamine by H2O2 to produce a yellow fluorescent product with excitation/emission maxima at 420/560 nm. The oxidation product interacts with DPA-GQD-His to achieve a rapid energy transfer between DPA-GQD-His and oxidation product. This increases the fluorescence of the oxidation product and quenches the fluorescence of DPA-GQD-His. DPA-GQD-His also improves the catalytic activity of DNAzyme towards oxidation of ophenylenediamine oxidization and enhances fluorometric response to acetamiprid. The assay works in the 1.0 fM to 1.0 nM acetamiprid concentration range and has a 0.38 fM detection limit. It was successfully applied to the determination of acetamiprid in tea. Graphical abstractThe study reported one double amplification strategy for ultrasensitive fluorescence detection of acetamiprid in tea with D-penicillamine and histidine-functionalized graphene quantum dots and G-quadruplex/heminDNAzyme. The analtyical method exhibits ultra high sensitivity, selectivity and rapidity of fluorescence response to acetamiprid.


Enzyme free amplification,Nanoprobe,Neonicotinoid insecticides,Ratiometric measure,

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