Dypeptidylpeptidase-4 inhibitors and the cardiovascular system: How to manage the fil rouge.


Diabetology, University of Florence, Italy. Electronic address: [Email]


Dypeptidylpeptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are a therapeutic option for improving glucose control in patients with type 2 diabetes. They can be prescribed at different stages of the natural history of the disease because of their low risk for hypoglycemia and associated weight gain. For all new drugs for diabetes, the US Food and Drug Administration requires the demonstration of the cardiovascular (CV) safety profile through pooled analyses of phase 3 studies or specifically designed trials. A significant superiority over placebo has been observed with a sodium-dependent glucose transporter-2 inhibitor, empagliflozin, and two glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, liraglutide and semaglutide, thus suggesting cardioprotective effects for some antidiabetic drugs. The neutral results of CV safety trials on DPP-4 inhibitors have been disappointing, appearing to contradict the data from pooled analyses and meta-analyses of early trials. The main aim of this review is to find a possible interpretation for the differences between the results of these early trials and the CV safety studies with DPP-4 inhibitors. We conclude that the hypothesis of additional beneficial effects by DPP-4 inhibitors (beyond the improvement of glucose control), on the CV system in low-risk patients in primary prevention, needs to be verified with specifically designed studies.


CV safety,Dypeptidylpeptidase-4 inhibitors,Type 2 diabetes,

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