BACKGROUND : Craniotomies carry inherent risks of postoperative complications that may have a negative impact on patients' status. Recognizing and preventing surgical complications is of paramount importance, especially in meningioma surgery, where most of these tumors are benign and current management protocols are effective in terms of disease control and maintenance of higher quality of life. The objective of this study was to describe the early complications after surgery and their predictive factors in patients undergoing resection of intracranial meningiomas. METHODS : A partly retrospective, partly prospective review was conducted in a Norwegian population-based cohort of 1469 consecutive cases of meningioma surgery treated at the university hospitals of Oslo, totaling 11,414 patient-years of follow-up. RESULTS : 2.6% of patients had a postoperative hematoma, 2.7% a postoperative infection, 3.9% a postoperative worsening of neurologic status; 5.4% of patients died during a 30-day period after surgery. Predictive factors of increased risk of postoperative complications were patient's age for the hematoma, a non-skull base meningioma for infection, and postoperative hematoma for the risk of neurologic worsening or 30-day mortality. CONCLUSIONS : Early postoperative complications in meningioma surgery have a negative impact on patient survival and postoperative neurologic status, in a disease where survival is usually not limited by the meningioma itself. In this study, we identified risk factors for early postoperative complications, the identification of at-risk populations may help to prevent the occurrence of these risk factors.