State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047, P. R. China; Sino-German Joint Research Institute, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047, P. R. China. Electronic address: [Email]
Milk is one of the earliest and most common allergen sources in the world, with β-lactoglobulin representing a major allergen protein. Numerous studies have reported that probiotics exert antiallergic and anti-inflammatory effects. Here, we examined the effects of 3 strains of Lactobacillus on immunomodulatory functions, intestinal barrier functions, and intestinal microbiota through a β-lactoglobulin-induced allergic mouse model. We found that the oral administration of Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY2013 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG suppressed allergic response, attenuating serum IgE and relieving anaphylaxis symptoms. The 3 strains of Lactobacillus could induce T helper (Th) 1 or T regulatory cells to differentiate to inhibit the Th2-biased response for regulating Th1/Th2 immune balance. Furthermore, L. plantarum ZDY2013 and L. rhamnosus GG enhanced intestinal barrier function through the regulation of tight junction. We also found that L. plantarum ZDY2013 and L. plantarum WLPL04 could regulate alterations in intestinal microbiota caused by allergies. In particular, Rikenella, Ruminiclostridium, and Lachnospiraceae UCG-006 were considerably reduced after treatment with L. plantarum ZDY2013 and L. plantarum WLPL04. These results suggested that 3 Lactobacillus strains may serve as an effective tool for the treatment of food allergies by regulating immune and gut microbiota.