Ejaculates contain a heterogeneous population of spermatozoa with differing ability to fertilize. It may be possible to reduce the numbers of spermatozoa required for artificial insemination or in vitro fertilization by selecting the sperm sub-population that possesses certain desired characteristics. This review describes what is meant by sperm quality, mentions different methods of sperm selection and then describes the effect of sperm selection by colloid centrifugation on boar sperm quality, both quality during storage and functionality in in vitro fertilization. Several versions of the technique known as Single Layer Centrifugation are available depending on the volume of ejaculate to be processed. Semen can be processed in volumes ranging from 0.25 to 150 mL, in suitably sized tubes. Processing small volumes of semen (0.25 mL on 1 mL colloid) is best done in a 15 mL tube, since the area of the interface between the semen and colloid is greater than in a 1.5 mL microcentrifuge tube. Potential uses of this processing technique are described, such as conservation breeding of rare breeds and removal of pathogens. Reducing the bacterial load in semen by single layer centrifugation though a low density colloid could provide an alternative to the use of antibiotics in semen extenders, and is an interesting development.