BACKGROUND : The present study evaluated the therapeutic effectiveness of moxidectin 1.0% (w/v) and imidacloprid 10% (w/v) (Advocate® spot-on solution for cats, Bayer Animal Health) against natural infections with the eyeworm Thelazia callipaeda in cats. This study was conducted as a GCP, negative-controlled, blinded and randomised field study in privately owned cats living in an area in southern Italy where T. callipaeda is enzootic. METHODS : The study was carried out in 30 cats (19 females and 11 males, aged from 8 months to 5 years, weighing 1.2-5.2 kg) of different breeds, naturally infected by T. callipaeda. At study inclusion (Day 0), animals were physically examined and the infection level was assessed by examination of both eyes for clinical score and live adult T. callipaeda count. Each cat was weighed and randomly assigned to one of the treatment groups (G1: Advocate, G2: untreated control). Clinical assessments and T. callipaeda adult counts were performed on Day 14. At the study completion visit on Day 28, clinical assessments and counts of T. callipaeda adults and larvae were performed. All cats were daily observed by their owners and general health conditions were recorded during the entire period of the study. RESULTS : The primary effectiveness variable was the percentage of animals in G1 group (Advocate) showing a complete elimination (parasitological cure) of adult eye worms at Day 14 and Day 28 . The effectiveness of the treatment in the G1 group was 93.3 and 100% at Day 14 and Day 28 , respectively, when compared to group G2. Total worm count reduction from both eyes for Advocate was 96.3% on Day 14 and 100% on Day 28. Clinical data were confirmed by the examination of conjunctival pouch flushing. An overall reduction in the number of cats with lacrimation and conjunctivitis was observed following treatment despite the fact that in a few cats treated with Advocate clinical signs persisted due to the chronic nature of the disease. CONCLUSIONS : Based on the results of the present trial, a single dose of Advocate was found to be safe and highly effective in the treatment of natural T. callipaeda infection in cats.