Effects of Agriophyllum squarrosum extracts on glucose metabolism in KKAy mice and the associated underlying mechanisms.

Affiliation

School of Mongol Medicine, Inner Mongolia University for Nationlities, Tongliao, 028000, China. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

BACKGROUND : Agriophyllum squarrosum (L.) Moq. is a traditional Mongol medicine commonly used in the treatment of diabetes.
OBJECTIVE : To examine the effects of Agriophyllum squarrosum extract (ASE) on glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetic KKAy mice, and to investigate the mechanisms underlying these effects.
METHODS : KKAy mice were divided into a model control group (MCG), a low-dose Agriophyllum squarrosum extract group (LASEG), a medium-dose Agriophyllum squarrosum extract group (MASEG), a high-dose Agriophyllum squarrosum extract group (HASEG), and a metformin group (MEG). Syngeneic C57BL/6 mice were used as a normal control group (NCG). Drugs were administered to all mice by gavage for 8 weeks. Random blood glucose levels were measured in the mice at baseline and after 2, 4, and 8 weeks of treatment. Glucose tolerance was measured after 6 weeks of drug administration. After 8 weeks, glycated serum proteins (GSP) and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) in the serum of all mice were measured. Sections of mouse liver tissues were used for periodic acid-Schiff staining (PAS) and the content of hepatic glycogen was determined. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the effects of ASE on liver phospho-insulin receptor substrate 2 (P-IRS2) protein expression. Western blotting was used to quantify the protein expression levels of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), AKT, phospho-AKT (S473) (P-AKT), glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), and glucose transporters 4 (GLUT4), while PCR was used to quantify the mRNA expression levels of insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2), PI3K, AKT, GSK3β, and GLUT4.
RESULTS : ASE treatment decreased random blood glucose levels in type 2 diabetic KKAy mice; increased glucose tolerance; decreased serum GSP and AGEs content; increased glycogen synthesis in liver tissues; upregulated the protein expression levels of PI3K, AKT, GLUT4, and P-IRS2; downregulated the protein expression level of GSK3β in liver tissues; upregulated the mRNA expression levels of IRS2, PI3K, AKT, and GLUT4; and downregulated the mRNA expression level of GSK3β in liver tissues.
CONCLUSIONS : ASE treatment may increase glucose metabolism in KKAy mice and improve glucose tolerance. The underlying mechanisms of the beneficial effects of ASE may be associated with the increase of glycogen synthesis, the inhibition of AGEs production, the upregulation of IRS2, PI3K, AKT, and GLUT4 protein and mRNA expression, and the downregulation of GSK3β protein and mRNA expression.

Keywords

Agriophyllum squarrosum extract,Glucose metabolism,KKAy mice,Mechanism research,Type 2 diabetes mellitus,

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