This study systematically analyzed the effects of amoxicillin (AMX) on the nitrogen transformation and its corresponding functional bacterial communities by conducting two aerobic composting experiments, and AMX impact on bacterial community succession was also evaluated. It provides theoretical and methodological support for harmless composting treatment of large quantities of manure containing AMX in China and for the high-quality compost products. The results showed that AMX exerted several effects on basic physicochemical and biological compost parameters. Notably, temperature changes typically accompanying compost maturation were delayed in AMX compost, reflecting altered compost maturation kinetics and bacterial community structure. Moreover, relative to control, AMX inhibited growth and reproduction of dominant bacterial phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, with respective reductions of 17.8-26.1% and 0-7.76% in relative abundance (RA) and significantly increased Proteobacteria RA by 1.9-24.8%. Thus, AMX altered both compost bacterial community structure and succession. From the perspective of various nitrogen content changes, AMX has a significant effect on nitrogen conversion and release. Simultaneously, AMX may inhibit ammoniated and ammonia-oxidizing bacterial activity, while significantly increasing the RA of denitrifying bacteria. Indeed, during early composting with AMX, the RA of denitrifying bacteria was 1361.9-1435.0% of control, highlighting differences in nitrogen transformation and release between groups.