UNASSIGNED : L-Arginine supports growth and resulted in increased PII signaling protein levels and lipid droplet accumulation in the colorless green alga Polytomella parva. Polytomella parva, a model system for nonphotosynthetic green algae, utilizes ammonium and several carbon sources, including ethanol and acetate. We previously reported that P. parva accumulates high amounts of arginine with the key enzyme of the ornithine/arginine biosynthesis pathway, N-acetyl-L-glutamate kinase, exhibiting high activity. Here we demonstrate that L-arginine can be used by this alga as a nitrogen source. Externally supplied arginine directly influenced the levels of PII signaling protein and formation of triacylglycerol (TAG)-filled lipid bodies (LBs). Our results suggest that the nitrogen source, but not nitrogen starvation, may be critical for the accumulation of LBs in a PII-independent manner in P. parva.