Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) antagonists are currently being evaluated as potential anticancer drugs. However, adverse effects related to these drugs, such as fatigue and pain, suggest that they affect neurons. Therefore, to understand the influence of HSP90 inhibitors on neurons, we investigated the effects of geldanamycin, an HSP90 antagonist, on nerve growth factor (NGF)-differentiated pheochromocytoma 12 (PC12) cells, particularly, on the expression and phosphorylation of proteins and kinases in the NGF pathway. Geldanamycin significantly inhibited NGF-induced neurite outgrowth and phosphorylation of Akt and extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 in PC12 cells. Furthermore, geldanamycin inhibited the phosphorylation of collapsin response mediator protein 2 and the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 in the presence of NGF, but did not significantly affect the expression of glycogen synthase kinase 3β. These results suggest that geldanamycin influences microtubule-binding proteins and kinases relating to neurite outgrowth, thereby inducing neuronal impairment.