Monascus purpureus is a traditional Chinese microbe that can be used as a medicinal herb and is edible. To improve the yield of monacolin K, we optimized the medium of M. purpureus with high-yield monacolin K strains. When high-yield strains C8, D8, E3, and I1 were grown in glutamic medium instead of the original medium, monacolin K production was increased. Among these strains, C8 exhibited the highest monacolin K production in glutamic acid medium, with levels increased 4.80-fold. RT-qPCR demonstrated that glutamic acid enhanced the expression of mokC and mokG. Observation of Monascus mycelium morphology using SEM showed that mycelia exhibited more folds, swelling, curves, and fractures. Thus, glutamic acid may promote the growth of the mycelium and appeared to increase the permeability of the cell membrane. This lays a foundation for research on the regulatory effect of glutamic acid and provides a theoretical basis for the industrialization and commercialization of Monascus.