Effects of green light on the growth of spotted halibut, Verasper variegatus, and Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, and on the endocrine system of spotted halibut at different water temperatures.


School of Marine Biosciences, Kitasato University, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-0373, Japan. Electronic address: [Email]


We have previously shown that the somatic growth of barfin flounder, Verasper moseri, was promoted by green light. The present study was undertaken to elucidate whether growth-promoting effect of green light can be observed in other flatfishes and to understand the roles of endocrine systems in green light-induced growth. Herein, we demonstrated facilitation of growth by green light in the spotted halibut, Verasper variegatus, and Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. Blue and blue-green light showed potencies that were similar to that of green light, while the potencies of red and white light were equivalent to that of ambient light (control). We also examined the effects of green light on growth and endocrine systems of V. variegatus at various water temperatures. Growth of the fish was facilitated by green light at four different water temperatures examined; the fish were reared for 31 days at 12 and 21 °C, and 30 days at 15 and 18 °C. Increase in condition factor was observed at 15 and 18 °C. Among the genes encoding hypothalamic hormones, expression levels of melanin-concentrating hormone 1 (mch1) were enhanced by green light at the four water temperatures. Expression levels of other genes including mch2 increased at certain water temperatures. No difference was observed in the expression levels of pituitary hormone genes, including those of growth hormone and members of proopiomelanocortin family, and in plasma levels of members of the insulin family. The results suggest that green light may generally stimulate growth of flatfishes. Moreover, it is conceivable that MCH, production of which is stimulated by green light, is a key hormone; it augments food intake, which is intimately coupled with somatic growth.