Effects of sublethal concentrations of the antifouling biocide Sea-Nine on biochemical parameters of the marine polychaete Perinereis aibuhitensis.


Department of Marine Science, College of Natural Sciences, Incheon National University, Incheon 22012, South Korea; Research Institute of Basic Sciences, Incheon National University, Incheon 22012, South Korea; Institute of Green Environmental Research Center, 169 Gaetbeol-ro, Yeonsugu, Incheon 21999, South Korea. Electronic address: [Email]


Sea-Nine™ 211 is an emerging biocide that has an adverse impact on aquatic environments. In this study, the marine polychaete Perinereis aibuhitensis was exposed to Sea-Nine (0.1, 1, and 10 μg L-1), and acute toxicity and biochemical responses such as changes in the intracellular contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) and enzymatic activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were evaluated over a period of 14 d. Determined median lethal doses, LC50 were 268 μg L-1, 142 μg L-1, and 55 μg L-1 at 24 h, 96 h, and 14 d, respectively. The MDA content increased significantly in a dose- and time-dependent manner, indicative of lipid peroxidation-related oxidative damage. Significantly higher intracellular GSH levels and antioxidant defense-related enzyme (CAT, SOD, GPx, GR, and GST) activities were observed after exposure to 10 μg L-1 Sea-Nine. In contrast, Sea-Nine treatment significantly reduced AChE activity at the highest concentration of Sea-Nine used (10 μg L-1). Taken together, these results indicate that sublethal concentrations of Sea-Nine are toxic to marine polychaetes through potential lipid peroxidation, induction of oxidative stress, and modulation of the cholinergic system. Our results can contribute to biomonitoring of aquatic environments and ecotoxicological research through the measurements of polychaete cellular defenses against waterborne biocides.


Sea-Nine,acetylcholinesterase,antioxidant system,lipid peroxidation,marine polychaete,