We previously showed LKE (lanthionine ketimine ester) reduces disease in the EAE model of multiple sclerosis, however whether LKE affects oligodendrocytes (OLGs) was not tested. In OLG progenitor cells (OPCs), LKE increased process number and area, but not PDGF-receptor-alpha expressing cells. In contrast, PDGF increased OPC numbers, but reduced process number and area. LKE increased collapsin response mediator protein-2 (CRMP2) expression, an LKE target, and CRMP2-expressing OLGs expressed myelin basic protein. LKE increased markers of OPC maturation, while PDGF, but not LKE, increased Sox2 expression. Our findings suggest that effects on OPCs may contribute to LKE beneficial actions in EAE.