Efficient Synthesis of All-Carbon Quaternary Centers via the Conjugate Addition of Functionalized Monoorganozinc Bromides.

Affiliation

Department of Chemistry, Bucknell University; [Email]

Abstract

The conjugate addition of organometallic reagents to α,β-unsaturated carbonyls represents an important method to generate C-C bonds in the preparation of all-carbon quaternary centers. Though conjugate additions of organometallic reagents are typically performed utilizing highly reactive organolithium or Grignard reagents, organozinc reagents have garnered attention for their enhanced chemoselectivity and mild reactivity. Despite numerous recent advances with more reactive diorganozinc and mixed diorganozinc reagents, the generation of all-carbon quaternary centers via the conjugate addition of functionalized monoorganozinc reagents remains a challenge. This protocol details a convenient and mild "one-pot" preparation and copper mediated conjugate addition of functionalized monoorganozinc bromides to cyclic α,β-unsaturated carbonyls to afford a broad scope of all-carbon quaternary centers in generally excellent yield and diastereoselectivity. Key to the development of this technology is the utilization of DMA as a reaction solvent with TMSCl as a Lewis acid. Notable advantages to this methodology include the operational simplicity of the organozinc reagent preparation afforded by the utilization of DMA as a solvent, as well as an efficient conjugate addition mediated by various Cu(I) and Cu(II) salts. Moreover, an intermediate silyl enol ether can be isolated utilizing a modified workup procedure. The substrate scope is limited to cyclic unsaturated ketones, and the conjugate addition is impeded by stabilized (e.g., allyl, enolate, homoenolate) and sterically encumbered (e.g., neopentyl, o-aryl) monoorganozinc reagents. Conjugate additions to five- and seven-membered rings were effective, albeit in lower yields compared with six-membered ring substrates.

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