Electrical stimulation (EStim) has been shown to promote bone healing and regeneration both in animal experiments and clinical treatments. Therefore, incorporating EStim into promising new bone tissue engineering (BTE) therapies is a logical next step. The goal of current BTE research is to develop combinations of cells, scaffolds, and chemical and physical stimuli that optimize treatment outcomes. Recent studies demonstrating EStim's positive osteogenic effects at the cellular and molecular level provide intriguing clues to the underlying mechanisms by which it promotes bone healing. In this review, we discuss results of recent in vitro and in vivo research focused on using EStim to promote bone healing and regeneration and consider possible strategies for its application to improve outcomes in BTE treatments. Technical aspects of exposing cells and tissues to EStim in in vitro and in vivo model systems are also discussed.