In this study the effects of increased graphene nanosheet (GNS) concentration on variations in the structure and properties of electrospun GNS-filled poly(trimethylene terephthalate) (PTT/GNS) composite fiber, such as its morphologies, crystallization behavior, mechanical properties, and electrical conductivity, were investigated. The effects of GNS addition on solution rheology and conductivity were also investigated. GNSs were embedded in the fibers and formed protrusions. The PTT cold crystallization rate of PTT/GNS composite fibers increased with the gradual addition of GNSs. A PTT mesomorphic phase was formed during electrospinning, and GNSs could induce the PTT mesomorphic phase significantly during PTT/GNS composite fiber electrospinning. The PTT/GNS composite fiber mats (CFMs) became ductile with the addition of GNSs. The elastic recoveries of the PTT/GNS CFMs with 170 °C annealing were better than those of the as-spun PTT/GNS CFMs. Percolation scaling laws were applied to the magnitude of conductivity to reveal the percolation network of electrospun PTT/GNS CFMs. The electrical conductivity mechanism of the PTT/GNS CFMs differed from that of the PTT/GNS composite films. Results showed that the porous structure of the PTT CFMs influenced the performance of the mats in terms of electrical conductivity.