Emerging biomarkers in Multiple Myeloma: A review.

Affiliation

Department of Biochemistry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

Multiple Myeloma (MM) is the second most common hematological malignancy after non-Hodgkin lymphoma and is manifested by uncontrolled proliferation and accumulation of abnormal plasma cells in the bone marrow (BM). The incidence along with deaths associated with MM is on rise due to lack of an effective diagnosis at an early stage. The identification of MM decades ago marks the adoption of certain conventional markers such as plasma cell percentage in BM, serum protein electrophoresis for M-band and urinary Bence-Jones protein. This was then followed by utilization of β2 microglobulin and serum albumin for determining the staging of MM. The need for a better diagnostic or prognostic marker prompts researchers and hence, certain novel markers have been tested which includes extracellular matrix proteins, angiogenic factors, telomeres and telomerase along with the immune markers. Nowadays, proteomic and genomic studies are being performed to identify novel diagnostic and/or prognostic markers for MM. Followed by this, comes the emerging concept of liquid biopsy which allows easy and non-invasive detection of the disease. The liquid biopsy comprises of circulatory tumor cells along with the nucleic acids (microRNAs and cell-free DNA) released from the tumor cells in peripheral circulation which could be a true representation of BM. This review, hence, summarizes the emerging biomarkers involved in the diagnosis and prognosis of MM.

Keywords

Biomarker,Diagnosis,Liquid biopsy,Multiple Myeloma,Prognosis,

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