Bacteroides spp. are anaerobic resident intestinal flora but are also known to cause severe morbidity. They are resistant to a wide variety of antimicrobial agents, including metronidazole, which has been shown to be associated with specific nitroimidazole (nim) resistance genes. Metronidazole resistance is emerging worldwide, although presently it remains at ca. 5%. This study aimed to determine the metronidazole susceptibility and distribution of nim genes in Bacteroides spp. clinical isolates in India. The relationship among strains harbouring nim genes and their susceptibility to metronidazole was also analysed.