Emerging therapeutic targets associated with the immune system in patients with intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH): From mechanisms to translation.


Department of Neurosurgery, Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China. Electronic address: [Email]


Intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) is a life-threatening type of stroke with high mortality, morbidity, and recurrence rates. However, no effective treatment has been established to improve functional outcomes in patients with ICH to date. Strategies targeting secondary brain injury are of great interest in both experimental and translational studies. The immune system is increasingly considered to be a crucial contributor to ICH-induced brain injury because it participates in multiple phases of ICH, from the early vascular rupture events to brain recovery. Various pathobiological processes that contribute to secondary brain injury closely interact with the immune system, such as brain oedema, neuroinflammation, and neuronal damage. Hence, we summarize the immune response to ICH and recent progress in treatments targeting the immune system in this review. The emerging therapeutic strategies that target the immune system after ICH are a particular focus and have been summarized.


Immune response,Immunomodulators,Intracerebral haemorrhage,Secondary brain injury,Therapeutic targets,