Encapsulation of collagen mimetic peptide-tethered vancomycin liposomes in collagen-based scaffolds for infection control in wounds.

Affiliation

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 USA. Electronic address: [Email]

Abstract

Wound infections are a significant clinical problem affecting millions of people worldwide. Topically applied antibacterial formulations with longer residence time and controlled antimicrobial release would offer significant benefits for improved prevention and treatment of infected wounds. In this study, we developed collagen mimetic peptide (CMP) tethered vancomycin (Van)-containing liposomes (Lipo) (CMP-Van-Lipo) hybridized to collagen-based hydrogels ('co-gels,' e.g., collagen/fibrin combination hydrogels) for the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in vitro and in vivo. Tethering CMP-Van-Lipo nanostructures to co-gels enabled sustained Van release and enhanced in vitro antibacterial effects against MRSA as compared to Van loaded co-gels or Van-Lipo loaded co-gels following multiple fresh bacterial inoculations over a period of 48 h. These results were successfully translated in vivo wherein MRSA infected wounds were effectively treated with CMP-Van-Lipo loaded co-gels for up to 9 days, whereas the activity of Van loaded co-gels and Van-Lipo loaded co-gels were limited to <2 days. Moreover, CMP-Van-Lipo retained in vivo antibacterial activity even after re-inoculation with bacteria; however, Van loaded co-gels and Van-Lipo loaded co-gels allowed significant bacterial growth demonstrating their limited efficacy. Altogether, these results provide proof-of-concept that CMP-Van-Lipo loaded co-gels can be effective topical formulations for preventive treatment of MRSA wound infections. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Current topical antimicrobial formulations (e.g., creams, gels, and ointments) do not control release, leaving antimicrobial concentrations either too high or too low at different time points, and provoking the development of antibacterial resistance and recurrence of wound infections. Here, collagen mimetic peptides (CMPs) were used to stably hybridize vancomycin-containing liposomal nanocarriers (CMP-Van-Lipo) within collagen-fibrin co-gels via triple-helical integration with collagen, enabling control over Van release for prolonged time periods and minimizing the adverse effects of the Lipo formulations on fibroblast cell viability in the wound bed. The CMP-Van-Lipo loaded co-gel's higher antibacterial effects in vitro were successfully translated in vivo for treatment of MRSA-infected mouse wounds, and thus the co-gels can be a potentially translatable treatment for improved clinical wound management.

Keywords

Co-gel,Collagen mimetic peptide,Liposomes,MRSA,Vancomycin,Wound infection,

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