This study reports on the influence of experimentally-induced uterine inflammation on chemical phenotypes, number and distribution of neurons in the dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) innervating the uterus in sexually mature gilts. On day 17 of the first studied estrous cycle, the uterine horns were injected with retrograde tracer Fast Blue (FB). After 28 days (on an expected day 3 of third studied estrous cycle), 50 ml of either saline (group SAL) or Escherichia coli (E. coli) suspension (109 colony-forming units/ml, group E. coli) were injected into each uterine horn. In the control pigs (group CON), only laparotomy was performed. Eight days later DRGs and uteri were collected. All infected gilts developed severe form of acute endometritis. By use of double immunofluorescence labelling the numbers of uterine perikarya expressing substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), neurokinin A (NKA), galanin (GAL) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) were analyzed. Injection of E. coli decreased the total number of the FB positive perykaria in the Th10-S4 DRGs. We revealed an increase in the populations of uterine perikarya coded SP+/CGRP-, SP+/NKA-, SP-/NKA+, SP+/GAL+, SP+/GAL-, SP-/GAL+, SP+/PACAP+ and SP-/PACAP+. Our results suggest that uterine inflammation affects both the spatial and neurochemical organization pattern of uterine sensory innervation. Additionally, the inflammation may affect the transmission of sensory information from uterus to spinal cord.